Category Archives: A05


Talmage, James E. “A “Sand-Bow”–An Unusual Optical Phenomenon.” Science 13, no. 338 (1901): 1901.

Geology Professor James E. Talmage, who became President of the University of Utah in 1894, Talmage documented the rare occurrence of a sand-bow where the oolitic sand that Montgomery wrote about in 1892 reflected light to create a rainbow much like dew and moisture produce

Type of Publisher

Original Copyright Holder
Unknown. The publisher of the journal in 1889 was N. D. C. Hodges who had taken over from the previous publisher and editor Samuel H. Scudder in 1884. (See “150 Years of Advancing Science“) Hodges was based in New York City, NY. The Library of Congress managed copyright registrations (rather than the district courts) at that time, but no digitized entries exist for Hodges as publisher or Science as a periodical. None of the covers, front matter, or individual articles from the 1880s include a copyright notice.

Historical Article Distribution and Current Market
3,000 subscribers in 1894 to the journal under its title at the time, Science: A Weekly Record of Scientific Progress. Currently, Science is held by 3,555 libraries. The article is available for individual purchase.

Times Cited

Digital Archive